While plaque is the primary cause of periodontal disease, the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) says that other factors are thought to increase the risk, severity and speed of gum disease development. These can include:
One of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of periodontitis. People who smoke are seven times more likely to get periodontitis than nonsmokers, and smoking can lower the chances of success of some treatments.
Hormonal changes such as pregnancy or menopause can cause gums to be more sensitive and therefore gingivitis could develop.
Can cause difficulties for the body's immune system to fight infection.
Some medications can affect oral health because they reduce the flow of saliva. Saliva has a a protective effect on a patient's teeth and gums. Some drugs also can cause abnormal growth of gum tissue.
Lack of proper nutrition
This may make it difficult for the patient's immune system to fight infection. A diet low in important nutrients will cause these sort of problems. Also if the bacteria causing periodontal disease thrives in acidic environments then if a patient eats sugars and other that increase their saliva then the bacterial counts in their mouth will increase.
Many illnesses can affect your gums. This can include diseases such as cancer or AIDS that compromise the patient's immune system.
Clenching and grinding teeth
Patients that exert too much force on the supporting tissues of their teeth could unfortunately increase the speed at which gum tissues are destroyed.